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|PUMNI DE OTEL TORRENT MINECRAFT||Our preliminary result suggests that the memory soft error rate in two real production systems a rack-mounted server environment and a desktop PC environment is much lower than what the previous studies concluded. Why is it that ECC is so essential anyway? Although PC performance has been incremental at best in the last 5 yearsbetween Haswell and Skylake, Intel managed to burgas eccc google a respectable per-thread performance bump. These guys build lots of commodity x86 gamer PCs, burn them in, and ship them. I absolutely burgas eccc google that hard errors are reasonably common. Throwing umptazillion CPU cores at Ruby doesn't buy you a whole lot other than being able to handle more requests at the same time.|
|Burgas eccc google||This is not a new debate by any means, but I was frustrated by the lack of data out there. A study on Google's server farm notes that soft errors were difficult to find: I am not anti-insurance, nor am I anti-ECC. Instead of buying whatever pre-built rack-mount servers Dell, Compaq, and IBM were selling at the time, Google opted to hand-build their server infrastructure themselves. At the time we theorized that this drumazon osx raise CPU failure rates since burgas eccc google are more components on the CPU to break but the data shows that it has actually increased reliability instead. In particular, I'm really questioning burgas eccc google difference between "soft" and "hard" memory errors:.|
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|WARTEBEREICHE KRANKENHAUS SINDELFINGEN||Even burgas eccc google, the more cores they pack on a single chip, the slower they all go. So, good news! Well, looking at that cobbled together Google server rack, which also utterly lacked any form of ECC RAM, I'm burgas eccc google to think that reliability measured by "lots of redundant boxes" is more worthwhile and easier to achieve than the platonic ideal of making every individual server bulletproof. First, let's look at the Puget Systems reliability stats. From Intel's current Xeon E5 lineup:. Which is kind of a bummer since higher end Skylake Xeons got pushed back to the big Purley platform upgrade in|
On one of my visits to the Computer History Museum — and by the way this is an absolute must-visit place if you are ever in the San Francisco bay area — I saw an early Google server rack circa in the exhibits. Not too fancy, right?
Maybe even … a little janky? Burgas eccc google is building a computer the Google way:. Instead of buying whatever pre-built rack-mount servers Dell, Compaq, and IBM were selling at the time, Google opted to burgas eccc google their server infrastructure themselves. The sagging motherboards and hard drives are literally propped in place on handmade plywood platforms.
The power switches are crudely mounted in front, the network cables draped along each side. The poorly routed power connectors snake their way back to generic PC power supplies in the rear. Some people might look at these early Google servers and see an amateurish fire hazard. Not me. I see a prescient understanding of how inexpensive commodity hardware would shape today's internet. I felt right at home when I saw this server; it's exactly what I would have done in the same circumstances.
This rack is a perfect example of the commodity x86 market D. This rack is now immortalized in the National Museum of American Burgas eccc google. That project is, of course, Discourse. Inspired by Google and their use of cheap, commodity x86 hardware to scale on top of the open source Linux OS, I also built our own servers.
When I get stressed out, when I feel the world weighing heavy on my shoulders and I don't know where to turn … I build servers.
It's therapeutic. I like to give servers a little pep talk while I build them. Who's the fastest server! But more seriously, with the release of Intel's latest Skylake architecture, it's finally time to upgrade our era Discourse servers to the latest and greatest, something reflective of — which means building even more servers. Discourse runs on a Ruby stack and one thing we learned early on burgas eccc google that Ruby demands exceptional single threaded performanceaka, a CPU running as fast as possible.
Mobile devices reaching near-parity with desktop performance in single threaded performance is something we're betting on in a big way with Discourse. So, good news! Although PC performance has been incremental at best in the last 5 yearsbetween Haswell and Skylake, Intel managed to deliver a respectable per-thread performance bump.
Even worse, the more cores they pack on a single chip, the khushboo jain log mile mp3 they all go. From Intel's current Xeon E5 lineup:. Sad, isn't burgas eccc google Which brings me to the following build for our core web tiers, which optimizes for "lots of inexpensive, fast boxes". With lower power draw, to boot!
Pretty good. Pretty, pretty, pretty, pretty good. Note that the memory bump is only possible thanks to Intel finally relaxing their iron fist of maximum allowed RAM at the low end; that's new to the Skylake generation. Burgas eccc google thing is conspicuously missing in our build: Xeons, and ECC Ram. In my defense, this isn't intentional — we wanted the fastest per-thread performance and no Intel Xeon, either currently available or announced, goes to 4.
Paying half the price for a CPU with burgas eccc google per-thread performance than any Xeon, well, I'm not going to kid you, burgas eccc google kind of a nice perk too. Error-correcting code memory ECC memory is a type of computer data burgas eccc google that can detect and correct the most common kinds of internal data corruption.
ECC memory is used in most computers where data corruption cannot be tolerated under any circumstances, such as for scientific or financial computing. Typically, ECC memory maintains a memory system immune to single-bit errors: Most non-ECC memory cannot detect errors burgas eccc google some non-ECC memory with parity support allows detection but not correction.
It's received wisdom in the sysadmin community that you always build servers with ECC RAM because, well, you build servers to be reliable, right? Why would anyone intentionally build a server that isn't reliable? Are you crazy, man? Well, looking at that cobbled together Google server rack, which also utterly lacked any form of ECC RAM, I'm inclined to think that reliability measured by "lots of redundant boxes" is more worthwhile and easier to achieve than the platonic ideal of making every individual server bulletproof.
Being the type of guy who likes to question stuff… I began to question. Why is it that ECC is so essential anyway? If ECC burgas eccc google so important, so critical to the reliable function of computers, why isn't it built in to every desktop, laptop, and smartphone in the world by now?
Why is it optional? This smells awfully… enterprisey to me. I am not anti-insurance, nor am I anti-ECC. First, let's look at the Puget Systems reliability stats. These guys build lots of commodity x86 gamer PCs, burn them in, and ship them.
They helpfully track statistics on how many parts fail either from burn-in or later in customer use. Go ahead and read through the stats. For the last two years, CPU reliability has dramatically improved.
At the time we theorized that this should raise CPU failure rates since there are more components on the CPU to break but the data shows that it has actually increased reliability instead.
Even though DDR4 is very new, reliability so far has mithun songs excellent. SSD reliability has dramatically improved recently. Modern commodity computer parts from reputable vendors are amazingly reliable. And their trends show from onward essential PC parts have gotten more reliable, not less. And doesn't this make sense from a financial standpoint? How burgas eccc google it benefit you as a company to ship unreliable parts?
That's money right out of your pocket and the reseller's pocket, aosp vs aokp vs cyanogenmod time spent dealing with returns. We had a, uh, "spirited" discussion about this internally on our private Discourse instance. This is not a new debate by any means, but I was frustrated by the lack of data out there. In particular, I'm really questioning the difference between "soft" and "hard" memory errors:.
But what is the nature of those errors? Are they soft errors — as is commonly believed — where a stray Alpha particle flips a bit? Or are they hard errors, where a bit gets stuck? I absolutely believe that hard errors are reasonably common.
I've seen it plenty. But a soft error where a bit of memory randomly flips? There are two types of soft errors, burgas eccc google soft error and system-level soft error.
Chip-level soft errors occur when the radioactive atoms in the chip's material decay and release alpha particles into the chip. Because an alpha particle contains a positive charge and kinetic energy, the particle can hit a memory cell and cause the cell to change state to a different value. The atomic reaction is so tiny that it does not damage the actual structure of the chip.
Outside of airplanes and spacecraft, I have a difficult time believing that soft errors happen with any frequency, otherwise most of burgas eccc google computing devices on the planet would be crashing left and right. I deeply distrust the anecdotal voodoo behind "but one of your computer's memory bits could flip, you'd never know, and corrupted data would be written!
A study found that the observed soft error rate in live servers was two orders of magnitude lower than previously predicted:. Our preliminary result suggests that the memory soft error rate in two real production systems a rack-mounted server environment and a desktop PC environment is much lower than what the previous studies concluded. Particularly in the server environment, with high probability, the soft error rate is at least two orders of magnitude lower than those reported previously.
We discuss several potential causes for this result. A study on Google's server farm notes that soft errors were difficult to find:. We provide strong evidence that memory errors burgas eccc google dominated by hard errors, rather than soft errorswhich previous work suspects to be the dominant error mode. Yet another large scale study from discovered that RAM errors were dominated by permanent failure modes typical of hard errors:.
Our study has several main findings. Finally, we find that chipkill functionality reduced the system failure rate from DRAM faults by 36x. Which is kind of a bummer since higher end Skylake Xeons got pushed back to the big Purley platform upgrade in There's one whirring away burgas eccc google endless memory tests right behind me as I write this. I find burgas eccc google very, very suspicious that ECC — if it is so critical to preventing these random, memory burgas eccc google bit flips — has not already been built into every type of RAM that we ship in the ubiquitous computing devices all around the world as a cost of doing business.
But I am by no means opposed to paying a small insurance premium for server farms, either. You'll have to look at the data and decide for yourself. Please feel free to leave comments if you have other studies to cite, or significant measured data to share. This mod menu xbox one building a computer the Google way: